2.1.4 PROWORDS, OPERATIONAL WORDS
These words are spoken to begin or end the message, indicate information for the receiving
operator, or to separate parts of the message or books. They are not written in the message or
counted in the check. They are usually spoken in a different tone of voice to distinguish them
from written parts of the message. The list follows.
18.104.22.168 NUMBER (before message number or SVC)
The proword “number” begins message copy. It tells the operator to copy everything after
hearing the word “number”.
To begin the message say "number ..." then transmit the preamble. This is the short formal way to
initiate copy. (It has been a long standing custom to begin by saying “Please copy number...” or
“Copy message number...” but these informalities are not required.)
The corresponding operational word to stop copy is "end".
The message numbers in variable parts of a book are also introduced with “number” followed by
the individual message number.
22.214.171.124 END (END OF MESSAGE)
The proword “end” signals the end of groups to be copied, in other words, the end of the written
message. (“end” is a shortened form of “END OF MESSAGE” and is used to make the short and
formal end of copy although the later is still used by operators from time to time.)
In other words, written copy is begun with “number” and terminated with “end”.
126.96.36.199 BOOK OF (#)
Used to begin transmission of a book of messages. To begin the book say “BOOK OF (#)” then
begin the fixed parts of the message. The corresponding words to end the book are “END
BOOK”. The (#) is the quantity of individual messages in the book spoken as words without
using the “figures” introducer.
188.8.131.52 END BOOK
Used to end copy of a book of messages. In other words book copy is begun with “book of (#)”
and terminated with “end book”.
The proword “break” marks the start of the text, and “break” at the end of the text marks the start
of the signature. The “break” is also used to separate parts of booked messages.
The first “break” at the start of the text, and at the beginning of each variable part of a book
message, requires a standby after saying the word to listen for fill requests. The receiving station
does not respond at “break” unless necessary. The “break” used to end the text does NOT require
a standby before continuing with the signature.
(See VOICING THE EXCHANGE for more operational details on these standby pauses.)
184.108.40.206 I SPELL
Used to indicate you are going back to spell the group just voiced. It is used with ONE GROUP
AT A TIME, and is said IMMEDIATELY after voicing the group, followed by either phonetic or
letter spelling of the group. (Pausing too long before saying “I spell” will force the receiving
operator to attempt to spell the group before you do.) When the group is spelled, go on to the next
group without repeating the spelled group.
In ARL SIXTY ONE: "A R L.. SIXTY I spell SIERRA INDIA X-RAY TANGO YANKEE..
ONE I spell OSCAR NOVEMBER ECHO ..."
220.127.116.11 I SAY AGAIN, (use #1) To REPEAT FOR CLARITY
Say the group(s), then "I say again", repeat the group(s), and then continue. It is wise to limit
repeats for clarity to one group at a time to avoid confusion with use #2 below. In bad radio
conditions, however, repeating phrases or whole lines of a message can increase the chance for
“WHISKER I say again WHISKER ... "
18.104.22.168 I SAY AGAIN, (use #2) To CORRECT AN ERROR
Stop, say "I say again", go back to last group (or proword) sent correctly, and continue, starting
with that correct group or proword.
Example: in “TO BRING BOOKS...”, the group BRING skipped in error;
“TO BOOKS I say again TO BRING BOOKS...”
22.214.171.124 NO MORE, ONE MORE (1), MORE (2 or more)
Indicates if you have additional traffic to follow or not. These terms follow the “end” or “end
book” termination of copy.
Indicates the end of your transmission and signals the receiving station to go ahead:
"W3TX 3RN TRAFFIC PODUNK TWO.. WORDS WITH W3RX OVER”.
Many transmissions by the net control or individual stations are “self completing”, i.e., the words
themselves signal the end of the sequence. In such cases the “over” may be omitted. Such signals
are pointed out throughout the chapter. The “end no more” sequence, for example, is sufficient to
signal the end of the transmission of the radiogram. On the other hand, a station’s traffic list,
comment, or question is of uncertain length and is terminated with “over”, or sometimes with its
The “OVER” may be used between messages or after other transmissions whenever the
transmitting station wishes to signal or force the other station to go ahead.
The “OVER” is useful in preventing two stations from transmitting at the same time. It is used
effectively when the words of the transmission are not themselves a clear indication for the other
station to “go ahead”. “Doubling” by two stations can result in much wasted time and copying
errors. See also the note on “GO AHEAD” under MISC. below.
Receiving station acknowledgment of message(s) copied. It is not necessary to repeat message
number(s) or other parts. (“MESSAGE(s) RECEIVED”, “BOOK OF (#) RECEIVED”, are in
wide use. For the sake of brevity and efficiency ROGER is the preferred method. ROGER,
meaning received-understood, implies all messages were received.)
Roger means “received and understood”. It does NOT mean “yes” or “affirmative”.
126.96.36.199 MISC., AFFIRMATIVE, NEGATIVE, ROGER, Q SIGNALS
A few key words:
CONFIRM The request to confirm correct copy of group(s). The affirmative
reply to the request.
ROGER Received and understood. (Does NOT mean yes, confirm, charlie,
OVER End of transmission, invitation to transmit.
GO AHEAD Continue. Used after requesting fills after interruptions to signal the
sending operator to continue. Also used as an equivalent to OVER.
73 Best regards (plural!). 73’s is redundant.
/ Symbol used to separate characters in groups. SLASH. The "/" may
be voiced as "slash", "stroke", "diagonal", or "slant-bar".
*** “Q” SIGNALS ARE NOT USED OPERATIONALLY ON VOICE! ***
Say it with words as described in this manual. (“Q” signals are permitted within the message text
and are treated as initials.)